Anna Zakrzewska, MSc

Department of Biosystems and Soft Matter (ZBiMM)
Division of Applications of Polymer Nanomaterials (PZNP)
position: PhD Student
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 422
room: 227
e-mail: azakrzew

Recent publications
1.Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A., Rinoldi C., Rybak D., Zargarian Seyed S., Zakrzewska A., Cegielska O., Põhako-Palu K., Zhang S., Stobnicka-Kupiec A., Górny Rafał L., Nakielski P., Kogermann K., De Sio L., Ding B., Pierini F., Engineering surgical face masks with photothermal and photodynamic plasmonic nanostructures for enhancing filtration and on-demand pathogen eradication, Biomaterials Science, ISSN: 2047-4849, DOI: 10.1039/d3bm01125a, pp.1-15, 2024
Abstract:

The shortage of face masks and the lack of antipathogenic functions has been significant since the recent pandemic's inception. Moreover, the disposal of an enormous number of contaminated face masks not only carries a significant environmental impact but also escalates the risk of cross-contamination. This study proposes a strategy to upgrade available surgical masks into antibacterial masks with enhanced particle and bacterial filtration. Plasmonic nanoparticles can provide photodynamic and photothermal functionalities for surgical masks. For this purpose, gold nanorods act as on-demand agents to eliminate pathogens on the surface of the masks upon near-infrared light irradiation. Additionally, the modified masks are furnished with polymer electrospun nanofibrous layers. These electrospun layers can enhance the particle and bacterial filtration efficiency, not at the cost of the pressure drop of the mask. Consequently, fabricating these prototype masks could be a practical approach to upgrading the available masks to alleviate the environmental toll of disposable face masks.

Affiliations:
Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A.-IPPT PAN
Rinoldi C.-IPPT PAN
Rybak D.-IPPT PAN
Zargarian Seyed S.-IPPT PAN
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Cegielska O.-IPPT PAN
Põhako-Palu K.-other affiliation
Zhang S.-other affiliation
Stobnicka-Kupiec A.-other affiliation
Górny Rafał L.-other affiliation
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Kogermann K.-other affiliation
De Sio L.-Sapienza University of Rome (IT)
Ding B.-Donghua University (CN)
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
2.Ziai Y., Lanzi M., Rinoldi C., Zargarian Seyed S., Zakrzewska A., Kosik-Kozioł A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Developing strategies to optimize the anchorage between electrospun nanofibers and hydrogels for multi-layered plasmonic biomaterials, Nanoscale Advances, ISSN: 2516-0230, DOI: 10.1039/d3na01022h, pp.1-13, 2024
Abstract:

Polycaprolactone (PCL), a recognized biopolymer, has emerged as a prominent choice for diverse biomedical endeavors due to its good mechanical properties, exceptional biocompatibility, and tunable properties. These attributes render PCL a suitable alternative biomaterial to use in biofabrication, especially the electrospinning technique, facilitating the production of nanofibers with varied dimensions and functionalities. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of PCL nanofibers can pose limitations. Conversely, acrylamide-based hydrogels, characterized by their interconnected porosity, significant water retention, and responsive behavior, present an ideal matrix for numerous biomedical applications. By merging these two materials, one can harness their collective strengths while potentially mitigating individual limitations. A robust interface and effective anchorage during the composite fabrication are pivotal for the optimal performance of the nanoplatforms. Nanoplatforms are subject to varying degrees of tension and physical alterations depending on their specific applications. This is particularly pertinent in the case of layered nanostructures, which require careful consideration to maintain structural stability and functional integrity in their intended applications. In this study, we delve into the influence of the fiber dimensions, orientation and surface modifications of the nanofibrous layer and the hydrogel layer's crosslinking density on their intralayer interface to determine the optimal approach. Comprehensive mechanical pull-out tests offer insights into the interfacial adhesion and anchorage between the layers. Notably, plasma treatment of the hydrophobic nanofibers and the stiffness of the hydrogel layer significantly enhance the mechanical effort required for fiber extraction from the hydrogels, indicating improved anchorage. Furthermore, biocompatibility assessments confirm the potential biomedical applications of the proposed nanoplatforms.

Affiliations:
Ziai Y.-IPPT PAN
Lanzi M.-University of Bologna (IT)
Rinoldi C.-IPPT PAN
Zargarian Seyed S.-IPPT PAN
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Kosik-Kozioł A.-IPPT PAN
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
3.Rinoldi C., Ziai Y., Zargarian Seyed S., Nakielski P., Zembrzycki K., Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A., Zakrzewska A., Fiorelli R., Lanzi M., Kostrzewska-Księżyk A., Czajkowski R., Kublik E., Kaczmarek L., Pierini F., In Vivo Chronic Brain Cortex Signal Recording Based on a Soft Conductive Hydrogel Biointerface, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN: 1944-8244, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.2c17025, Vol.15, No.5, pp.6283-6296, 2023
Abstract:

In neuroscience, the acquisition of neural signals from the brain cortex is crucial to analyze brain processes, detect neurological disorders, and offer therapeutic brain–computer interfaces. The design of neural interfaces conformable to the brain tissue is one of today’s major challenges since the insufficient biocompatibility of those systems provokes a fibrotic encapsulation response, leading to an inaccurate signal recording and tissue damage precluding long-term/permanent implants. The design and production of a novel soft neural biointerface made of polyacrylamide hydrogels loaded with plasmonic silver nanocubes are reported herein. Hydrogels are surrounded by a silicon-based template as a supporting element for guaranteeing an intimate neural-hydrogel contact while making possible stable recordings from specific sites in the brain cortex. The nanostructured hydrogels show superior electroconductivity while mimicking the mechanical characteristics of the brain tissue. Furthermore, in vitro biological tests performed by culturing neural progenitor cells demonstrate the biocompatibility of hydrogels along with neuronal differentiation. In vivo chronic neuroinflammation tests on a mouse model show no adverse immune response toward the nanostructured hydrogel-based neural interface. Additionally, electrocorticography acquisitions indicate that the proposed platform permits long-term efficient recordings of neural signals, revealing the suitability of the system as a chronic neural biointerface.

Keywords:

brain−machine interface,conductive hydrogels,nanostructured biomaterials,in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility,long-term neural recording

Affiliations:
Rinoldi C.-IPPT PAN
Ziai Y.-IPPT PAN
Zargarian Seyed S.-IPPT PAN
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Zembrzycki K.-IPPT PAN
Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A.-IPPT PAN
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Fiorelli R.-IPPT PAN
Lanzi M.-University of Bologna (IT)
Kostrzewska-Księżyk A.-other affiliation
Czajkowski R.-other affiliation
Kublik E.-other affiliation
Kaczmarek L.-other affiliation
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
4.Zangoli M., Monti F., Zanelli A., Marinelli M., Flammini S., Spallacci N., Zakrzewska A., Lanzi M., Salatelli E., Pierini F., Di Maria F., Multifunctional Photoelectroactive Materials for Optoelectronic Applications Based on Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines and Thieno[1,2,5]thiadiazoles, Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN: 0947-6539, DOI: 10.1002/chem.202303590, pp.1-18, 2023
Abstract:

In this study, we introduce a novel family of symmetrical thiophene-based small molecules with a Donor–Acceptor–Donor structure. These compounds feature three different acceptor units: benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (Bz), thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (Pz), and thieno[1,2,5]thiadiazole (Tz), coupled with electron donor units based on a carbazole-thiophene derivative. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT), we investigate how the molecular geometry and strength of the central acceptor unit impact the redox and spectroscopic properties. Notably, the incorporation of Pz and Tz moieties induces a significant redshift in the absorption and emission spectra, which extend into the near-infrared (NIR) region, simultaneously reducing their energy gaps (~1.4-1.6 eV). This shift is attributed to the increased coplanarity of the oligomeric inner core, both in the ground (S0) and excited (S1) states, due to the enhanced quinoidal character as supported by bond-length alternation (BLA) analysis. These structural changes promote better π-electron delocalization and facilitate photoinduced charge transfer processes in optoelectronic devices. Notably, we show that Pz- and Tz-containing molecules exhibit NIR electrochromic behavior and present ambivalent character in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Finally, theoretical calculations suggest that these molecules could serve as effective two-photon absorption (2PA) probes, further expanding their potential in optoelectronic applications.

Affiliations:
Zangoli M.-CNR-ISOF (IT)
Monti F.-CNR-ISOF (IT)
Zanelli A.-CNR-ISOF (IT)
Marinelli M.-other affiliation
Flammini S.-other affiliation
Spallacci N.-other affiliation
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Lanzi M.-University of Bologna (IT)
Salatelli E.-University of Bologna (IT)
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
Di Maria F.-CNR-ISOF (IT)
5.Zakrzewska A., Zargarian S.S., Rinoldi C., Gradys A.D., Jarząbek D.M., Zanoni M., Gualandi C., Lanzi M., Pierini F., Electrospun Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Based Conductive Semi-interpenetrating Polymer Network Fibrous Hydrogel: A Toolbox for Optimal Cross-Linking, ACS Materials Au, ISSN: 2694-2461, DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialsau.3c00025, Vol.3, No.5, pp.464-482, 2023
Abstract:

Cross-linking of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) creates a three-dimensional network by bonding adjacent polymer chains. The cross-linked structure, upon immersion in water, turns into a hydrogel, which exhibits unique absorption properties due to the presence of hydrophilic groups within the PVA polymer chains and, simultaneously, ceases to be soluble in water. The properties of PVA can be adjusted by chemical modification or blending with other substances, such as polymers, e.g., conductive poly[3-(potassium-5-butanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3KBT). In this work, PVA-based conductive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) are successfully fabricated. The systems are obtained as a result of electrospinning of PVA/P3KBT precursor solutions with different polymer concentrations and then cross-linking using “green”, environmentally safe methods. One approach consists of thermal treatment (H), while the second approach combines stabilization with ethanol and heating (E). The comprehensive characterization allows to evaluate the correlation between the cross-linking methods and properties of nanofibrous hydrogels. While both methods are successful, the cross-linking density is higher in the thermally cross-linked samples, resulting in lower conductivity and swelling ratio compared to the E-treated samples. Moreover, the H-cross-linked systems have better mechanical properties─lower stiffness and greater tensile strength. All the tested systems are biocompatible, and interestingly, due to the presence of P3KBT, they show photoresponsivity to solar radiation generated by the simulator. The results indicate that both methods of PVA cross-linking are highly effective and can be applied to a specific system depending on the target, e.g., biomedical or electronic applications.

Keywords:

poly(vinyl alcohol),poly[3-(potassium-5-butanoate)thiophene-2.5-diyl],electrospun nanofibers,cross-linking,fibrous hydrogel,semi-IPN

Affiliations:
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Zargarian S.S.-IPPT PAN
Rinoldi C.-IPPT PAN
Gradys A.D.-IPPT PAN
Jarząbek D.M.-IPPT PAN
Zanoni M.-other affiliation
Gualandi C.-University of Bologna (IT)
Lanzi M.-University of Bologna (IT)
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
6.Zakrzewska A., Haghighat Bayan M.A., Nakielski P., Petronella F., De Sio L., Pierini F., Nanotechnology Transition Roadmap toward Multifunctional Stimuli-Responsive Face Masks, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN: 1944-8244, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.2c10335, Vol.14, No.41, pp.46123-46144, 2022
Abstract:

In recent times, the use of personal protective equipment, such as face masks or respirators, is becoming more and more critically important because of common pollution; furthermore, face masks have become a necessary element in the global fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, the main mission of scientists has become the development of face masks with exceptional properties that will enhance their performance. The versatility of electrospun polymer nanofibers has determined their suitability as a material for constructing “smart” filter media. This paper provides an overview of the research carried out on nanofibrous filters obtained by electrospinning. The progressive development of the next generation of face masks whose unique properties can be activated in response to a specific external stimulus is highlighted. Thanks to additional components incorporated into the fiber structure, filters can, for example, acquire antibacterial or antiviral properties, self-sterilize the structure, and store the energy generated by users. Despite the discovery of several fascinating possibilities, some of them remain unexplored. Stimuli-responsive filters have the potential to become products of large-scale availability and great importance to society as a whole.

Keywords:

nanostructured face masks, stimuli-responsive nanomaterials, electrospun nanofibers, active filtration, smart filters, COVID-19, antipathogen

Affiliations:
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Haghighat Bayan M.A.-IPPT PAN
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Petronella F.-other affiliation
De Sio L.-Sapienza University of Rome (IT)
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN
7.Ziai Y., Petronella F., Rinoldi C., Nakielski P., Zakrzewska A., Kowalewski T.A., Augustyniak W., Li X., Calogero A., Sabała I., Ding B., De Sio L., Pierini F., Chameleon-inspired multifunctional plasmonic nanoplatforms for biosensing applications, NPG Asia Materials, ISSN: 1884-4049, DOI: 10.1038/s41427-022-00365-9, Vol.14, pp.18-1-17, 2022
Abstract:

One of the most fascinating areas in the field of smart biopolymers is biomolecule sensing. Accordingly, multifunctional biomimetic, biocompatible, and stimuli-responsive materials based on hydrogels have attracted much interest. Within this framework, the design of nanostructured materials that do not require any external energy source is beneficial for developing a platform for sensing glucose in body fluids. In this article, we report the realization and application of an innovative platform consisting of two outer layers of a nanocomposite plasmonic hydrogel plus one inner layer of electrospun mat fabricated by electrospinning, where the outer layers exploit photoinitiated free radical polymerization, obtaining a compact and stable device. Inspired by the exceptional features of chameleon skin, plasmonic silver nanocubes are embedded into a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel network to obtain enhanced thermoresponsive and antibacterial properties. The introduction of an electrospun mat creates a compatible environment for the homogeneous hydrogel coating while imparting excellent mechanical and structural properties to the final system. Chemical, morphological, and optical characterizations were performed to investigate the structure of the layers and the multifunctional platform. The synergetic effect of the nanostructured system’s photothermal responsivity and antibacterial properties was evaluated. The sensing features associated with the optical properties of silver nanocubes revealed that the proposed multifunctional system is a promising candidate for glucose-sensing applications.

Affiliations:
Ziai Y.-IPPT PAN
Petronella F.-other affiliation
Rinoldi C.-IPPT PAN
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Zakrzewska A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski T.A.-IPPT PAN
Augustyniak W.-Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Li X.-Donghua University (CN)
Calogero A.-Sapienza University of Rome (IT)
Sabała I.-Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Ding B.-Donghua University (CN)
De Sio L.-Sapienza University of Rome (IT)
Pierini F.-IPPT PAN