Maciej Zawidzki, PhD, DSc 

Doctoral thesis
201009  Application of computational intelligence to engineering design problems in architecture firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis (RUKJ)
 1332 
Habilitation thesis
20200709  Zastosowania metod inteligencji obliczeniowej do optymalizacji architektonicznych Systemów Ekstremalnie Modularnych 
Recent publications
1.  Tauzowski P., Błachowski B.D., Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., MorphoGen: Topology optimization software for Extremely Modular Systems, SoftwareX, ISSN: 23527110, DOI: 10.1016/j.softx.2024.101797, Vol.27, pp.110, 2024 Abstract: This paper introduces MorphoGen — an integrated reliabilitybased topology optimization and nonlinear finite element analysis system for 2D and 3D domains. The system’s key innovation is its seamless prototyping of scientific formulations for computational problems in topology optimization. Its layered and objectoriented architecture, based on the template method design pattern, facilitates effortless modifications of algorithms and the introduction of new types of finite elements, materials, and analyses. MorphoGen also offers flexible handling of objective functions and constraints during topological optimization, enhancing its adaptability. It empowers researchers and practitioners to explore a wide range of engineering challenges, fostering a deeper understanding of complex structural behaviors and efficient design solutions. There are many topology optimization software and open source codes, especially based on the classical SIMP method. Unlike these codes our package is freely distributed among users and since it is distributed on the MIT licence, which allows for its easy modification depending on the particular needs of the users. For this purpose, we use the topology optimization algorithm proposed for the first time in our previous paper (Blachowski et al., 2020). The algorithm is based on a fully stress designbased optimality criteria and can be applied for topology optimization of either linearly elastic and elastoplastic structures. Additionally, the novelty of the proposed system is related to its ability of solving optimal topology under various constraints such as displacement, stresses and fatigue in both deterministic and probabilistic cases. Another application are modular structures, which reduce design complexity and manufacturing costs as well as rapid reconfiguration. However, in the realm of structural optimization, modular systems are more challenging due to various: modes of operation of the modules and the stresses configurations. Moreover, this area of research is dramatically less explored. Thus the effectiveness of MorphoGen for structural engineering is demonstrated with examples of topological shape optimization of two Extremely Modular Systems: a planar robotic manipulator ArmZ and spatial freeform ramp TrussZ. Keywords:Stress Constrained Topology Optimizatio,Extremely Modular System,Objectoriented software architecture,MATLABbased array programming,First Order Reliability Analysis Affiliations:
 
2.  Zawidzka E., Szklarski J. T., Kobaka J.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Przykłady Małej Architektury w oparciu o System ArmZ, POMIARY  AUTOMATYKA  ROBOTYKA. PAR, ISSN: 14279126, DOI: 10.14313/PAR_252/73, Vol.2, pp.7380, 2024 Abstract: ArmZ to koncepcja hiperredundantnego manipulatora robotycznego opartego na sekwencji szeregowo połączonych identycznych modułów. Każdy moduł ma tylko jeden stopień swobody (1DOF) – skręt względem poprzedniego. Moduły systemu ArmZ mogą być masowo produkowane i łatwo wymieniane w przypadku awarii. Sterowanie ArmZ jest stosunkowo trudne, dlatego zwykle wymaga stosowania metod inteligencji obliczeniowej. W artykule przedstawiono kilka koncepcji kinetycznych obiektów małej architektury opartych na ArmZ: spiralną kolumnę o regulowanej wysokości, system nadążania słonecznego, kinetyczną rzeźbę bioniczną i kinetyczny zraszacz/fontannę. Prezentowane koncepcje są zasadniczo niskotechnologiczne (“lowtech”). W każdym przypadku moduł bazowy jest przymocowany do podstawy (podłoża). Dla prostoty napęd jest przykładany bezpośrednio do pierwszego modułu, a następnie przenoszony za pomocą wewnętrznych przekładni na kolejne moduły. Każdy moduł jest wyposażony w zestaw cylindrycznych i stożkowych kół zębatych z zębami prostymi o profilu spiralnym (do połączeń miedzy modułami). Keywords:ArmZ, hiperredundancja, manipulator, mała architektura, systemy modularne Affiliations:
 
3.  Suchocki C.^{♦}, Katzer J.^{♦}, Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Nowak R.^{♦}, Badanie potencjału technologii iPADLiDAR w inwentaryzacji obiektów budowlanych, POMIARY  AUTOMATYKA  ROBOTYKA. PAR, ISSN: 14279126, DOI: 10.14313/PAR_251/55, Vol.1, pp.5561, 2024 Abstract: W artykule przedstawiono program badawczy mający na celu wstępne określenie potencjału technologii iPADLiDAR w inwentaryzacji obiektów budowlanych. iPAD, LiDAR, skaning, tablet, nisko kosztowy Affiliations:
 
4.  Keigo Y.^{♦}, Ario I.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Yuta H.^{♦}, Optimization Problem of the sizescale for a Foldable Chain Scissors Structure based on Stress Analysis, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN: 17426596, DOI: 10.1088/17426596/2647/4/042005, Vol.2647, pp.19, 2024 Abstract: Emergency bridges are used to restore the lifeline of damaged bridges after disasters. However, the design specification of existing emergency bridges do not afford rapid bridging. Therefore, a trial deployable bridge (Scissors Bridge) using a scissors structure that folds compactly has been experimentally produced. But, the assembly process for the bridge has not been considered and there are no practical design examples or design methods for scissors bridges. In this paper, as for existing bridges, we established a design method of scissors bridges when considering the live load. In addition, a generalpurpose member crosssectional dimension optimization method, aimed at minimizing weight, was developed and proposed. Considering the problem of insufficient strength of the scissors bridge, the optimum reinforcing pattern and its crosssectional dimensions were determined through two methods of reinforcement and optimization of the crosssectional dimension of the member. Finally, a trial of practical design calculation was performed using the results of the study to determine whether a scissors bridge satisfying the standard of the Specifications for Highway Bridges can be designed. scissors structure,deployable bridge,stress analysis Affiliations:
 
5.  Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Simulation of simple movements of ArmZ oblique swivel joint chain manipulator, POMIARY  AUTOMATYKA  ROBOTYKA. PAR, ISSN: 14279126, DOI: 10.14313/PAR_248/59, Vol.27, No.2, pp.5967, 2023 Abstract: ArmZ is a concept of a hyperredundant manipulator based on linearly joined sequence of congruent modules by oblique swivel joint mechanism. Each module has one degree of freedom only, namely a twist relative to the previous module in the sequence. Although the concept of this type of manipulator is relatively old and simple, its control is very difficult an nonintuitive, which results in a limited use in industrial practice. This paper presents a simple simulation of ArmZ in Mathematica programming environment which demonstrates a few simple but potentially useful movements. Keywords:ArmZ, Extremely Modular System, hyperredundant manipulator, Mathematica, oblique swivel joint Affiliations:
 
6.  Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Kiński W.^{♦}, Prototyp ekstremalnie modularnego hiperredundantnego manipulatora ArmZ, POMIARY  AUTOMATYKA  ROBOTYKA. PAR, ISSN: 14279126, DOI: 10.14313/PAR_247/39, Vol.27, No.1, pp.3944, 2023 Abstract: ArmZ to koncepcja hiperredundantnego manipulatora robotycznego składającego się z przystających modułów o jednym stopniu swobody (1DOF) i realizującego (prawie) dowolne ruchy w przestrzeni. Zasadnicze zalety ArmZ to: ekonomizacja (dzięki masowej produkcji identycznych elementów) oraz odporność na awarie (po pierwsze – zepsute moduły mogą być łatwo zastąpione, po drugie – nawet gdy jeden lub więcej modułów ulegnie awarii – manipulator taki może ciągle wykonywać, prawdopodobnie w stopniu ograniczonym, zakładane zadania). Podstawową wadą systemu ArmZ jest jego nieintuicyjne, bardzo trudne sterowanie. Innymi słowy, połączenie koncepcji nietrywialnego modułu z formowaniem praktycznych konstrukcji oraz sterowanie ich rekonfiguracją (transformacją ze stanu A do B) są bardzo złożone obliczeniowo. Mimo to prezentowane podejście jest racjonalne, zważywszy powszechną dostępność wielkich mocy obliczeniowych w kontraście z wysokimi kosztami i „delikatnością” niestandardowych rozwiązań i urządzeń. W artykule nakreślono ogólną koncepcję manipulatora ArmZ i zaprezentowano wstępne prace zmierzające do wykonania prototypu. Keywords:ArmZ, odporność na awarie, sterowanie kształtem ogólnym, systemy modularne Affiliations:
 
7.  Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Discrete (TwoState) Modular HyperRedundant Planar Manipulator, COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, ISSN: 22993649, DOI: 10.24423/cames.550, Vol.29, No.4, pp.397407, 2022 Abstract: This paper presents a concept of an extremely simple planar manipulator composed of 24 congruent modules. Each module has only two possible discrete positions in relation to the previous module: left (− π 6 ) or right ( π 6 ). However, despite its conceptual simplicity, this manipulator can perform relatively demanding tasks, for example as an inspection device. The manipulator is placed in an experimental environment, and the goal is to place its tip in close proximity to five given points without collisions. Despite the constraints of its motion, the manipulator effectively “crawls” inside the working space and visits assigned points. The control of the manipulator is executed by manual placing to desired configurations and interpolating the intermediate transitions. The preliminary results are promising and show that for certain practical types of tasks, the functionality and precision of this extremely simple manipulator could be sufficient, e.g., visual inspection, provision of survival supplies, placing of explosives, etc. Keywords:discrete manipulator,hyperredundant,snake robot,modular Affiliations:
 
8.  Zawidzka E., Szklarski J., Kiński W.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Prototype of the ArmZ modular solar tracker, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN: 21945357, DOI: 10.1007/9783031035029_28, Vol.1427, pp.273282, 2022 Abstract: ArmZ  a hyperredundant manipulator based on linearly joined sequence of congruent units is presented. Each unit has 1DOF (one degree of freedom) only, namely a twist relative to the previous unit in the sequence. ArmZ has a potential of being economical and robust. The control of ArmZ, however, is not intuitive and difficult. This paper presents the preliminary results of designing a prototype of a modular Suntracking device comprised of four congruent units with possible application as a solar energy harvester or a Sunshade. Keywords:Extremely modular system, ArmZ, Hyperredundant manipulator, Rapid prototyping, Lowtech Affiliations:
 
9.  Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Kinetic street furniture with ArmZ, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, ISSN: 17433509, DOI: 10.2495/HPSU220021, Vol.209, pp.1522, 2022 Abstract: ArmZ is a concept of a hyperredundant manipulator based on linearly joined sequence of congruent units. Each unit has only one degree of freedom (1DOF), namely a twist relative to the previous unit in the sequence. Since each module is identical, ArmZ has a potential of being economical and robust: the modules can be massproduced and, in case of failure, easily replaced. However, the control of ArmZ is nonintuitive and difficult, thus it usually requires application of computational intelligence methods. This paper presents a number of concepts for kinetic street furniture based on ArmZ: a spiral column of adjustable height, a suntracking shade/solar energy harvester, biomimicry sculpture, kinetic sprinkler/fountain. The proposed concepts are lowtech in principle. Therefore in each case, the first module in the sequence is fastened to a solid base (ground). For simplicity, the drive is applied directly to the first module and transferred to subsequent units by internal gears. Each module is equipped with a set of cylindrical and bevel gears with straight teeth with involute profile (for connecting the modules). Keywords:ArmZ, extremely modular system, lowtech, street furniture Affiliations:
 
10.  Zawidzka E., Szklarski J., Zawidzki M., ArmZ as a modular tracking device, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, ISSN: 23673389, DOI: 10.1007/9789811916106_37, Vol.448, pp.429437, 2022 Abstract: ArmZ is a hyperredundant manipulator based on a sequence of linearly joined identical modules. Each module has only one degree of freedom—a twist relative to the previous module. ArmZ can be potentially economical, as the modules can be massproduced. ArmZ is also robust, as the malfunctioning module can be replaced. Moreover, if some modules malfunction, the device can still execute tasks with certain accuracy. However, the disadvantage of ArmZ is a nonintuitive and difficult control. This paper presents a concept of a modular tracking device comprised of four identical modules. As an example, the Suntracking setup is used with possible application for solar energy harvesting. Keywords:Extremely modular system, ArmZ, Hyperredundant manipulator, Suntracking Affiliations:
 
11.  Zawidzka E., Kiński W.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Preliminary prototype of a 4unit armZ hyperredundant modular manipulator, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN: 21945357, DOI: 10.1007/9783030748937_27, pp.285294, 2021 Abstract: ArmZ is a concept of a robotic manipulator comprised of linearly joined congruent modules with possibility of relative twist. The advantages of ArmZ are: economization (massproduction) and robustness (modules which failed can be replaced, also if some fail the system can perform certain tasks). Nonintuitive and difficult control are the disadvantages of ArmZ. It has been introduced over six years ago. The theretofore research focused on the control of the virtual ArmZ manipulator through the relative twists of its constituent units. This paper documents the fabrication and testing of the preliminary physical prototype of a simple ArmZ, which has been built using relatively lowtech approach. The modules have been assembled from 3Dprinted elements using PETG filament. Each module is equipped with a transmission mechanism allowing to preset the spin of its twist (either positive/right or negative/left). Although the presented system is very simple it demonstrates certain meaningful kinematic actions and sets clear paths for the future research in the area of Extremely Modular Systems. Keywords:extremely modular system, armZ, hyperredundant manipulator, rapid prototyping, lowtech Affiliations:
 
12.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Multiobjective optimization of the floor plan of a single story family house considering position and orientation, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2019.102766, Vol.141, pp.116, 2020 Abstract: Improving the architectural layout for diverse objectives using rigorous mathematical optimization methods gradually receives more attention by the researchers. Such optimization however, is usually reduced to a much simpler and relatively welldefined problem such as: facility layout optimization, quadratic assignment problem, rectangle partitioning. Nonetheless, architects are usually skeptical about such approaches since they produce solutions which lack certain architectural qualities. This paper proposes a framework where architectural functional layout (FL) is optimized for the following objectives: functionality (defined by users), insolation (calculated according to geographical conditions), outside view attractiveness (assessed onsite) and external noise (measured onsite). Incorporating the latter two and simultaneous optimization of FLs for objectives related specifically to the site: position and orientation are the novel contributions of this paper. Firstly, a set of candidate FLs is generated, next they are evaluated for optimal location and orientation on a given site. Optimality is conceived here as maximization of realvalued objective function combining: user's satisfaction level of the outside views, shielding from external noise, and insolation architectural optimization, subjective evaluation, functional layout, acoustic comfort, coarse grid Affiliations:
 
13.  Zawidzki M., The Overview of Optimization Methods Applied to TrussZ Modular System, COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, ISSN: 22993649, DOI: 10.24423/cames.291, Vol.27, No.23, pp.155176, 2020 Abstract: Extremely Modular Systems (EMSs) are comprised of as few types of modules as possible and allow creating structurally sound freeform structures that are not constrained by a regular tessellation of space. TrussZ is the first EMS introduced, and its purpose is to create freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks in any given environment. This paper presents an overview of various multiobjective optimization methods applied to TrussZ structures. Keywords:TrussZ, extremely modular system, discrete optimization, multiobjective Affiliations:
 
14.  Zawidzki M., Jankowski Ł., Multiobjective optimization of modular structures: weight versus geometric versatility in a TrussZ system, ComputerAided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN: 10939687, DOI: 10.1111/mice.12478, Vol.34, No.11, pp.10261040, 2019 Abstract: This paper proposes an approach for multicriterial optimization of modular structures with respect to their structural and geometrical properties. The approach is tested using the quickly deployable and reconfigurable modular ramp system TrussZ intended for pedestrian traffic. The focus is on modular structures composed of a moderate number of relatively complex modules, which feature an irregular, noncuboidal geometry. Such modules can be assembled into a variety of geometrically different configurations which do not adhere to any predefined spatial grid; their global geometry can be treated as freeform and determined in situ during construction. The optimization variables represent locallevel geometrical and structural properties of a single module. The Pareto front is used to balance between two kinds of objectives. The geometrical objective quantifies the ability of the modules to generate geometrically versatile global structures that are wellsuited to comply with spatial constraints of real construction sites. The structural objective is formalized in analogy to the minimum weight problem with upper bound constraints imposed on the von Mises stress and the Euler buckling load ratio. A twolevel optimization scheme is employed with NSGAII at the top level and a simulated annealing with adaptive neighborhood at the lower level. Keywords:modular structures, multicriterial optimization, shape optimization, sizing optimization, NSGAII, simulated annealing with adaptive neighborhood Affiliations:
 
15.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Effective Multiobjective Discrete Optimization of TrussZ Layouts Using a GPU, APPLIED SOFT COMPUTING, ISSN: 15684946, DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2018.05.042, Vol.70, pp.501512, 2018 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is an Extremely Modular System for creating skeletal freeform ramps and ramp networks. The TZ structures are comprised of four variations of two types of basic unit subjected to rotation. The two types of units are: R and L being a mirror reflection of each other. This paper presents a novel method based on image processing, evolutionary algorithm and intensive parallelization of multiobjective optimization of TZ layouts. TrussZ, Extremely Modular System, Retrofitting, accessibility, multiobjective, discrete, combinatorial, optimization, genetic algorithm, parallel computing, GPU, GPGPU Affiliations:
 
16.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Transformations of ArmZ modular manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003, Vol.126, pp.147160, 2018 Abstract: A novel concept of hyperredundant, snakelike manipulator is presented. It is based on the reconfigurable modular construction system–ArmZ (AZ). AZ is comprised of linearly joined congruent modules with possibility of relative twist. AZ is an Extremely Modular System, i.e. it is composed of a single basic unit and allows for creating freeform shapes. Required level of usefulness and efficiency are among the most challenging design aspects of such reconfigurable systems. Here AZ is considered in the context of kinematics of robotic arms. In general, due to its highly nonlinear nature, it is very difficult to find transitions between given states (configurations), especially under realistic environmental and structural constraints. As a way to control the manipulator, an implementation of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for finding transitions between AZ states in realistic scenarios is proposed. Four practical examples are presented which are variations of two distinct problems: bending of a hexagonal AZ in a narrow slot (strong environmental constraints), and reaching a given point in 3D space by the tip of dodecagonal AZ (acting as a robotic arm). The problem of AZ transformation has been defined as a multiobjective optimization. The methodology is general with no restrictions to the objective function. Since the problem is strongly nonlinear, in order to cover large space of potential solutions, the algorithm runs for a relatively large number of random initial swarms. This task was distributed on a computer cluster. Although the nature of AZ reconfiguration is discrete, the optimization algorithm is continuous. Keywords:Extremely modular system, ArmZ, PipeZ, Discrete optimization, Dihedral rotation, Reconfiguration, Particle Swarm Optimization, Redundant robot, Hyperredundant manipulator Affiliations:
 
17.  Zawidzki M., Jankowski Ł., Optimization of modular TrussZ by minimummass design under equivalent stress constraint, SMART STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS, ISSN: 17381584, DOI: 10.12989/sss.2018.21.6.715, Vol.21, No.6, pp.715725, 2018 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is an Extremely Modular System (EMS). Such systems allow for creation of structurally sound freeform structures, are comprised of as few types of modules as possible, and are not constrained by a regular tessellation of space. Their objective is to create spatial structures in given environments connecting given terminals without selfintersections and obstacleintersections. TZ is a skeletal modular system for creating freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks. The previous research on TZ focused on global discrete geometric optimization of the spatial configuration of modules. This paper reports on the first attempts at structural optimization of the module for a singlebranch TZ. The internal topology and the sizing of module beams are subject to optimization. An important challenge is that the module is to be universal: it must be designed for the worst case scenario, as defined by the module position within a TZ branch and the geometric configuration of the branch itself. There are four variations of each module, and the number of unique TZ configurations grows exponentially with the branch length. The aim is to obtain minimummass modules with the von Mises equivalent stress constrained under certain design load. The resulting modules are further evaluated also in terms of the typical structural criterion of compliance. Keywords:Extremely Modular System, TrussZ, structural optimization, modular structures, minimum mass design, frame structures Affiliations:
 
18.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Deployable PipeZ, Acta Astronautica, ISSN: 00945765, DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.05.023, Vol.127, pp.2030, 2016 Abstract: This paper presents a concept of deployable PipeZ (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigidpanel mechanism and allows to create freeform links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of PipeZ (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collisionfree transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figureeight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable PipeZ module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deepspace and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the “dead link”. A lowfidelity prototype of a 6module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed. Keywords:Ocean and space outpost, Bananasplit, Deployable structure, Rigidpanel folding, Freeform Affiliations:
 
19.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Optimization of Multibranch TrussZ based on Evolution Strategy, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2016.07.015, Vol.100, pp.113125, 2016 Abstract: This paper concerns multibranch TrussZ networks (MTZ). A possible scenario for creating a “multibranch bridge” linking 6 terminals of pedestrian and cycling communication is presented. This process is formulated as a constrained minimization problem. New, biologyinspired nomenclature for MTZ and encoding for MTZ are introduced. Several operations for MTZs are introduced and illustrated. The functionality of these operations is illustrated with transformation from a random MTZ to a “proper” 6branch MTZ network. A populationbased heuristic experiment is presented to demonstrate that the introduced operators allow us to create any desirable MTZ. A cost function for the considered scenario is introduced. The genetic operations are interpreted and visualized. A number of feasible MTZ layouts produced by an evolution strategybased algorithm are presented. One of these layouts is used for creation of the spatial 6terminal MTZ, which is also visualized. Keywords:Extremely modular system, Modular ramp system, Multibranch network, Modular structure encoding, Evolution strategy, Discrete layout optimization Affiliations:
 
20.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Automated geometrical evaluation of a plaza (town square), Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2016.01.018, Vol.96, pp.5869, 2016 Abstract: This paper presents a method for an automated geometrical evaluation (AGE) intended as a design support tool for urban design of a plaza (P). AGE is based on three normalized properties derived from a plan of P, namely: smallness, enclosure, and regularity. 19 worldwide plazas have been evaluated by 20 respondents in, what is called here, human subjective evaluation (HSE). A brief analysis of HSE including the identification of redundant categories is presented. Two P evaluation methods based on all four (S,C,E,R) and selected three (S,E,R) properties are discussed. Good agreement of AGE based on S,E, and R (NPSER) with HSE is shown. P quality rating (excellent, good, fair) based on NPSER is introduced. Exceptional cases are briefly discussed Keywords:Urban composition, Public square, Plaza, Layout evaluation, Design support tool, Normalized accumulated quality Affiliations:
 
21.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Dynamic shading of a building envelope based on rotating polarized film system controlled by onedimensional cellular automata in regular tessellations (triangular, square and hexagonal), Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN: 14740346, DOI: 10.1016/j.aei.2014.09.008, Vol.29, No.1, pp.87100, 2015 Abstract: The original prototype of the cellular automaton (CA) shading system (CASS) for building facades was based on rectangular array of cells and used liquid crystal technology. This paper introduces polarized film shading system (PFSS) – an alternative approach based on optomechanical modules whose opacity is a function of the rotation of polarized film elements. PFSS in regular tessellations: triangular, square and hexagonal are discussed. Simulations for each type of tessellation are presented and visualized. Visual attractiveness of emergent CA patterns manifested by ‘‘particles’’ and ‘‘solitons’’ is discussed. Keywords:Adaptive architecture, Organic architecture, Building envelope, CA shading Affiliations:
 
22.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Retrofitting of pedestrian overpass by TrussZ modular systems using graphtheory approach, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2014.11.004, Vol.81, pp.4149, 2015 Abstract: Installing pedestrian ramps is a common improvement towards a barrierfree environment. This paper introduces a graphtheoretical method of retrofitting of a singlebranch TrussZ (TZ) ramp in a constrained environment. The results produced by this exhaustive search method are usually ideal and better than those produced previously with metaheuristic methods. A large case study of linking two sections of the Hongo Campus of Tokyo University using an overpass in an extremely constrained environment is presented. TZ modules with 1:12 (8.3%) slope are used, which is allowable in most countries for ramps for selfpowered wheelchairs. The results presented here are highly satisfactory both in terms of structural optimization and aesthetics. Visualizations of the TZ ramp system, composed of 124 units, are presented. Keywords:TrussZ, Modular lightweight system, Organic design, Discrete structural optimization, Retrofitting, Pedestrian ramp, Breadthfirst search, Wavefront algorithm, Unknown graph exploration Affiliations:
 
23.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Chraibi M.^{♦}, Nishinari K.^{♦}, CrowdZ: The userfriendly framework for crowd simulation on an architectural floor plan, Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN: 01678655, DOI: 10.1016/j.patrec.2013.10.025, Vol.44, pp.8897, 2014 Abstract: This paper introduces CrowdZ (CZ): a framework that provides a userfriendly platform where architects can perform simple crowd simulations on floor plans. A simple but robust and flexible agentbased system is used for modeling of the crowd dynamics. Such simulations can be performed at any stage of design – from rough sketches to the final blueprints. CZ allows acquiring the layouts for the simulations in a number of ways: freehand sketches, importing already prepared images and appropriating preprocessed images from commercially available Computer Aided Design programs. These three methods are illustrated with practical examples, followed by a number of simulations compared with the literature or other commercially available programs. Keywords:Pedestrian dynamics, Agent based modeling, Design support, Digitized floor plan Affiliations:
 
24.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Nishinari K.^{♦}, Application of evolutionary algorithms for optimum layout of TrussZ linkage in an environment with obstacle, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.04.022, Vol.65, pp.4359, 2013 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is a concept of a modular system for creating freeform links and ramp networks. It is intended as a universal transportation system for cyclists and pedestrians, especially ones with strollers or carts, and in particular – by persons on wheelchairs, the elders, etc. In other words, TZ is for people who have difficulties using regular stairs or escalators. With only two types of modules, TZ can be designed for nearly any situation and therefore is particularity suited for retrofitting to improve the mobility, comfort and safety of the users. This paper presents an application of evolution strategy (ES) and genetic algorithm (GA) for optimization of the planar layout of a TZ linkage connecting two terminals in a given environment. The elements of the environment, called obstacles, constrain the possible locations of the TZ modules. Criteria of this multiobjective optimization are: the number of modules to be the smallest, which can be regarded as quantitative economical optimization, and the condition that none of the modules collides with any other objects, which can be regarded as qualitative satisfaction of the geometrical constraints. Since TZ is modular, the optimization of its layout is discrete and therefore has combinatorial characteristic. Encoding of a planar TZ path, selection method, objective (cost) function and genetic operations are introduced. A number of trials have been performed; the results generated by ES and GA are compared and evaluated against backtrackingbased algorithm and random search. The convergence of solutions is discussed and interpreted. A visualization of a realistic implementation of the best solution is presented. Further evaluation of the method on three other representative layouts is presented and the results are briefly discussed. Keywords:TrussZ, Modular skeletal system, Organic design, Metaheuristic discrete optimization, Retrofitting, Pedestrian ramp Affiliations:
 
25.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Bator M.^{♦}, Application of Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimization of the Sequence of Initial Conditions for the Cellular AutomatonBased Shading, Journal of Cellular Automata, ISSN: 15575969, Vol.7, pp.363384, 2013 Abstract: This paper presents an application of evolutionary algorithm (EA) for multiobjective optimization of the sequence of initial conditions (SIC) for a cellular automaton (CA) used for a potential implementation in the field of architecture. In the proposed application, a modular shading system for building facade is driven by a two color, one dimensional, range 2 CA rule {3818817080,2,2}. The SIC optimization criteria are: visual attractiveness, gradual and intuitive transition from one density level to another and even distribution of the pattern over the entire array. The ideal solutions for 10 square arrays of 7×7, 8×8,..., 16×16 cells are found by an exhaustive search method – the backtracking. The encoding of SICs using the orderbased representation is introduced. A cost function evaluating both monotonicity of the average density transition, and the distribution of shading pattern is introduced. For a 100×100 cell array EA is implemented with three setups: without crossover but with intensive mutation, with crossover and without mutation, and with both crossover and mutation. Two types of crossover operations are used: uniform (UX) and onepoint (OPX). A number of experiments with various combinations of parameters were performed. The results are compared and the recommended strategy is briefly discussed. The best result was produced by EA with OPX and mutation rate 0.4. Keywords:Modular shading system, initial conditions, multiobjective optimization, discrete optimization, backtracking, orderbased representation, evolutionary algorithm Affiliations:
 
26.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Nishinari K.^{♦}, Shading for Building Facade with TwoColor OneDimension RangeTwo Cellular Automata on A Square Grid, Journal of Cellular Automata, ISSN: 15575969, Vol.8, pp.147163, 2013 Abstract: A practical application of cellular automata (CA) in the field of Architecture is presented, where onedimensional CA on a square grid drives a modular shading system of a building facade. Examples of three classes: general, semitotalistic and totalistic of twocolor onedimension rangetwo automata are analyzed for potential practical use. The problem of desired change in the opacity of the shading array as a function of the sequence of initial conditions (SIC) is discussed. The ideal SlCs for selected CAs on 12 x 12 cell arrays found by backtracking algorithm are presented. The influenee of the type of boundary conditions (BC) is discussed and a special type of a fixed BC is introduced. The robustness of the system under two types of permanent failure is analyzed  the single cell failure, and deactivation of a single column of cells. Keywords:Adaptive architecture, modular shading system, fixed boundary conditions, Robustness, failure Affiliations:
 
27.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Nishinari K.^{♦}, Modular TrussZ system for selfsupporting skeletal freeform pedestrian networks, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 09659978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2011.12.012, Vol.47, No.1, pp.147159, 2012 Abstract: This paper presents the concept of TrussZ (TZ) – a skeletal system for pedestrian traffic which is composed of only two modules and allows the creation of complex threedimensional selfsupporting networks connecting any number of terminals in a given environment. TZ is intended as a universal, feasible and practical system for newly designed situations and most importantly, for retrofitting, especially where the use of heavy equipment is impossible or uneconomic. TrussZ, Modular skeletal system, Selfsupporting structure, Organic design, Discrete structural optimization, Retrofit pedestrian link, Pathfinding with backtracking Affiliations:
 
28.  Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Tateyama K.^{♦}, Nishikawa I.^{♦}, The constraints satisfaction problem approach in the design of an architectural functional layout, ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION, ISSN: 0305215X, DOI: 10.1080/0305215X.2010.527005, pp.124, 2011 Abstract: A design support system with a new strategy for finding the optimal functional configurations of rooms for architectural layouts is presented. A set of configurations satisfying given constraints is generated and ranked according to multiple objectives. The method can be applied to problems in architectural practice, urban or graphic design—wherever allocation of related geometrical elements of known shape is optimized. Although the methodology is shown using simplified examples—a single story residential building with two apartments each having two rooms—the results resemble realistic functional layouts. One example of a practical size problem of a layout of three apartments with a total of 20 rooms is demonstrated, where the generated solution can be used as a base for a realistic architectural blueprint. The discretization of design space is discussed, followed by application of a backtrack search algorithm used for generating a set of potentially ‘good’ room configurations. Next the solutions are classified by a machine learning method (FFN) as ‘proper’ or ‘improper’ according to the internal communication criteria. Examples of interactive ranking of the ‘proper’ configurations according to multiple criteria and choosing ‘the best’ ones are presented. The proposed framework is general and universal—the criteria, parameters and weights can be individually defined by a user and the search algorithm can be adjusted to a specific problem. Keywords:Architecture, design support, architectural layout optimization, multiobjective, discrete Optimization, CSP Affiliations:

List of recent monographs
1. 718  Ario A.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Application of Group Theory to Symmetric Structures, Routledge, pp.1200, 2023 
2. 559  Zawidzki M., Discrete Optimization in Architecture  Building Envelope, Springer, pp.1124, 2017 
3. 560  Zawidzki M., Discrete Optimization in Architecture  Architectural & Urban Layout, Springer, pp.1105, 2016 
4. 561  Zawidzki M., Discrete Optimization in Architecture  Extremely Modular Systems, Springer, pp.1121, 2016 
5. 108  Chwieduk D., Pomierny W.^{♦}, Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Pietruszko S.^{♦}, Podstawy energetyki słonecznej, Polskie Towarzystwo Energetyki Słonecznej  ISES, pp.174, 2006 
Conference papers
1.  Zawidzki M., Katzer J.^{♦}, Folding Mechanisms of Selected Extremely Modular Systems, CCC 2024, 2024 CREATIVE CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE, 20240629/0702, Praga (CZ), DOI: 10.3311/CCC2024123, pp.17, 2024 Abstract: Extremely Modular System (EMS) is a relatively new concept introduced a few years ago. It represents a new approach to the design of engineering structures and architectural objects where assembly of congruent units allows for the creation of freeform shapes. The main difference from the traditional modular systems used in engineering, is the emphasis of the minimal diversity of types of modules, ideally  just one. This is why these system are called "extremely" modular. One of the most natural areas for use of EMSs are deployable structures. This paper presents rigid body folding mechanisms for two selected EMSs: PipeZ  a parametric system comprised of one type of module allowing for creation of threedimensional knots, and TrussZ  a modular system for creating freeform ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals. Keywords:Extremely Modular System, Deployable Structure, Freeform. PipeZ, TrussZ Affiliations:
 
2.  Tauzowski P., Błachowski B., Zawidzka E., Jankowski Ł., Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Topology Optimization of a 6DOF ArmZ Modular Robotic Manipulator, CST 2024, The Fifteenth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, 20240904/0906, Prague (CZ), DOI: 10.4203/ccc.9.5.2, pp.18, 2024 Abstract: This contribution considers the problem of topology optimization of modular structures. A bionic trunklike robotic “ArmZ” manipulator is considered. The manipulator is modular, that is, it is composed of a sequence of identical modules. In geometric terms, each module is essentially an obliquely cut section of an elliptical pipe, so in the cutting plane it forms a circle. With respect to the previous module, it has a single degree of freedom: the relative twist. Therefore, the total number of the degrees of freedom of the entire manipulator equals the number of its modules. Such a manipulator belongs to the family of Extremely Modular Systems. The advantages of such systems are the economization (due to the possible mass production of modules) and robustness (replacement of a failed module instead of a complex repair). Keywords:Topology optimization, Modular manipulator, Multiple loadings, Geometric transformations, Kinematics, Stress constraints. Affiliations:
 
3.  Szklarski J., Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Reinforced Learning for Ground Movement of the Hyperreduntant Modular Robot, PPRAI 2024, PPRAI 2024: 5th Polish Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 20240418/0420, Warszawa (PL), pp.18, 2024 Abstract: We show that the Soft ActorCritic Reinforced Learning algorithm is able to find efficient motion patterns for a hyperredundant robot consisting of 6 identical modules connected in a chain like fashion. The control is done by applying relative angular velocities between the modules. Analogous system has been studied before in the context of a robotic trunklike manipulator. Keywords:Reinforced Learning, Robotic Locomotion, Hyperreduntant Modular Manipulator, ArmZ, Extremely Modular System Affiliations:
 
4.  Yoshida K.^{♦}, Ario I.^{♦}, Zawidzki M., Hama Y.^{♦}, Optimization Problem of the sizescale for a Foldable Chain Scissors Structure based on Stress Analysis, EURODYN2023, 20230702/0705, Delft (NL), pp.19, 2023 Abstract: Emergency bridges are used to restore the lifeline of damaged bridges after
 
5.  Zawidzki M., Ario I.^{♦}, Extremely Modular TrussZ Pedestrian Ramp, The 5th National Convention of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 20230914/0915, Hiroshima (JP), pp.12, 2023  
6.  Zawidzki M., Geometrical Universality of TrussZ System, ICGG 2018, The 18th International Conference on Geometry and Graphics, 20180803/0807, Mediolan (IT), pp.11671176, 2018 Abstract: Standardization and modularization are common means of simplification and economization of engineering structures. Extremely modular systems (EMS) are comprised of very few (ideally just one) types of modules and allow for creation of structurally sound freeform constructions. TrussZ (TZ) is the EMS considered in this paper. It is a skeletal system for creating freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic unit subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection, rotation and their combination). A family of shapes including: isosceles quadrilaterals (concave and convex), regular and irregular kites and darts, isosceles triangles and trapezoids has been considered for the planar projection of TrussZ modules (TZMs). It has been shown that isosceles triangles and trapezoids suit best TZ. The universality of TZM has been assessed by measurement of the egularity of distribution reachable points by given TZ built with several such TZMs. It has been shown that the vertex angle (h) of 32.5° gives the most regularly distributed, thus universal TZ. Keywords:TrussZ, Extremely modular system, Isosceles quadrilateral Regularity Affiliations:
 
7.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Singlebranch TrussZ Optimization Based on Image Processing and Evolution Strategy, PARENG2017, International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, Grid and Cloud Computing for Engineering, 20170530/0531, Pécs (HU), DOI: 10.4203/ccp.111.28, pp.28113, 2017 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is a skeletal system for creating freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic unit subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection, rotation and combination of both). This paper presents a new approach to the optimization of the layout of a singlebranch TrussZ (STZ) in constrained environment (E). The problem is formulated as follows: create an STZ from a start (sP) to end point (eP) without selfintersections and collisions with two obstacles. This is a multicriterial optimization problem where three independent objectives are subjected to minimization: the total number of modules (n), the “reaching error” to eP and the “overlapping error”. All three criteria are weighted and aggregated to a single cost function (CF). The calculation of CF is based on image processing of rendered geometry of individual STZs in E. The optimization is performed by populationbased classic heuristic method  Evolution Strategy (ES). The computation of CF is the most time consuming, however, its parallelization is rather straightforward. Two parallelization methods are presented: distribution over Wolfram Lightweight Grid and application of general purpose graphical processing units (GPGPUs) with the use of CUDA platform. Keywords:Extremely Modular System, TrussZ, discrete optimization, image processing, rasterization, GPU, CUDA, Mathematica, Wolfram Lightweight Grid. Affiliations:
 
8.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Preliminary Optimization of PipeZ Reconfiguration, PARENG2017, International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, Grid and Cloud Computing for Engineering, 20170530/0531, Pécs (HU), DOI: 10.4203/ccp.111.27, pp.27112, 2017 Abstract: PipeZ (PZ) is a parametric design system which comprised of a congruent modules (PZM) allows the creation of complex threedimensional, singlebranch structures which can be represented by mathematical knots. Once the geometrical parameters are set for the PZM, the shape of PZ is controlled solely by relative twists of the PZMs in a sequence. Therefore each PZM has one degree of freedom (1DOF). This paper presents the preliminary optimization of PZ reconfiguration from a “straight tube” to a halftorus. Here the displacement of PZMs transverse to the “bending direction” is to be minimized. In other words, it resembles “truing” of a wheel. In the considered case, the PZ is comprised of eight hexagonal PZMs. Thus every PZM can have six possible positions relative to the previous module. The initial (PZI) and target (PZT) configurations are given. Since the timesteps and relative twists are discrete, it is a discrete optimization and has combinatorial nature. The number of possible configurations grows astronomically with the assumed number of timesteps from one position to another and the number of PZMs. However, the optimization algorithm can be naturally parallelized. At first the concept of PZ is outlined, followed by the experiment. The results are illustrated and discussed. Keywords:Extremely Modular System, PipeZ, ArmZ, discrete optimization, dihedral rotation, “snakebot”, reconfiguration. Affiliations:
 
9.  Zawidzki M., Jankowski Ł., Szklarski J., Structural optimization of a fiveunit singlebranch TrussZ modular structure, SMART 2017, 8th Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 20170605/0608, Madrid (ES), pp.525535, 2017 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is an Extremely Modular System (EMS). Such systems allow for creation of structurally sound freeform structures, are comprised of as few types of modules as possible, and are not constrained by a regular tessellation of space. Their objective is to create spatial structures in given environments connecting given terminals without selfintersections and obstacleintersections. In an EMS, the assembly, reconfiguration and deployment difficulty is moved towards the module, which is relatively complex and whose assembly is not intuitive. As a result, an EMS requires intensive computation for assembling its desired freeform geometrical configuration, while its advantage is the economization of construction and reconfiguration by extreme modularization and mass prefabrication. TZ is a skeletal modular system for creating freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic module (TrussZ module, TZM) subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection and rotation). The previous research on TZ focused on global discrete optimization of the spatial configuration of modules. This contribution reports on the first attempts at structural optimization of the TZM for a singlebranch TZ. Namely, the internal topology of a TZM and sizing of its elements are subject to optimization. An important challenge is due the fact that TZM is to be universal, i.e., it must be designed for the worst case scenario. There are four variations of each module, and due to symmetries there are thus 4^4 = 256 unique 5unit configurations. The structural performance of all of them needs to be evaluated in terms of a typical structural criterion (the maximum von Mises effective stress), and used for structural optimization at the level of a single TZM. Keywords:Extremely Modular System, TrussZ, Structural optimization, Effective stress Affiliations:
 
10.  Zawidzki M., Jankowski Ł., Multicriterial optimization of geometrical and structural properties of the basic module of a singlebranch TrussZ structure, WCSMO12, 12th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimisation, 20170605/0609, Braunschweig (DE), DOI: 10.1007/9783319679884_11, pp.19, 2017 Abstract: TrussZ (TZ) is an Extremely Modular System (EMS). Such systems allow for creation of structurally sound freeform structures, are comprised of as few types of modules as possible, and are not constrained by a regular tessellation of space. Their objective is to create spatial structures in given environments connecting given terminals without selfintersections and obstacleintersections. In an EMS, the assembly, reconfiguration and deployment difficulty is moved towards the module, which is relatively complex and whose assembly is not intuitive. As a result, an EMS requires intensive computation for assembling its desired freeform geometrical configuration, while its advantage is the economization of construction and reconfiguration by extreme modularization and mass prefabrication. TZ is a skeletal modular system for creating freeform pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic module (TrussZ module, TZM) subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection and rotation). The previous research on TZ focused on global discrete optimization of the spatial configuration of modules. This contribution is the first attempt at structural optimization of the TZM for a singlebranch TZ. The result is a multicriterial optimization, where the Pareto front provides the means to strike the optimal balance between geometric and structural assessment criteria. Keywords:multicriterial optimization, TrussZ, effective stress, modular systems Affiliations:

Conference abstracts
1.  Zawidzki M., Katzer J.^{♦}, Folding Mechanisms of Selected Extremely Modular Systems, CCC 2024, 2024 CREATIVE CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE, 20240629/0702, Praga (CZ), pp.11, 2024 Abstract: Extremely Modular System (EMS for short) is a relatively new concept introduced by the Extremely Modular System, Deployable Structure, Freeform, PipeZ, TrussZ Affiliations:
 
2.  Ario I.
^{♦}, Ma D.^{♦}, Ma H.^{♦},
Zawidzki M., Advanced Bifurcation Analysis Using Modified Stiffness Method of Group Theoretic Imperfections, ICTAM 2024, The 26th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 20240825/0830, Daegu (KR), pp.12, 2024 Abstract: Multiple bifurcations due to symmetry are often encountered when analyzing nonlinear motifs of nanomechanics or structures with axial multiple symmetry. The location of multiple bifurcation points and bifurcation path tracing become problems in numerical analysis. In this paper, as a solution to this problem, the a priori information of grouptheoretic bifurcation theory is applied. By utilizing the irreducible representation of the dihedral group, we propose to represent the initial imperfection vectors according to the difference in symmetry of the structural system. A part of the tangent stiffness matrix is corrected by coordinate transformations, and Graphtheory, Bifurcation, Imperfection, Fulerene, Dihedral group Affiliations:
 
3.  Zawidzki M., Cader M.^{♦}, Automation in Construction: Projects, Prospects and Development Strategies, The 22nd Symposium on Construction Robotics in Japan, 20241008/1010, Tsukuba (JP), pp.11, 2024 Abstract: Automation in Construction is currently one of the main new directions in ŁPIAP. Our department is equipped with stateoftheart devices, such as: an industrial 3D printer with a workspace of 15/5/5 m, capable of printing with concrete or extruded polystyrene and milling; a mobile 3D printer with a workspace of 5/3/3 m with the same capabilities; an industrial KUKA 500 robot with various designated endeffectors; a Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) multidimensional device using alloy and steel, etc. Here we present our ongoing projects and prospects that have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by setting new standards for efficiency, precision and safety. Affiliations:
 
4.  Zawidzki M., Ario I.^{♦}, The 5th National Convention of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, JSCE 2023, JSCE Japan Society of Civil Engineers 2023 Annual Meeting, 20230914/0915, Hiroshima (JP), pp.13, 2023  
5.  Zawidzki M., Cader M.^{♦}, Robotized Deployment of TrussZ Modular Bridge, The 21th Symposium on Construction Robotics in Japan, 20230905/0907, Hokkaido (JP), pp.1, 2023  
6.  Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Extremely Modular Hyperredundant ArmZ for Emergency, The 21th Symposium on Construction Robotics in Japan, 20230905/0907, Hokkaido (JP), pp.1, 2023  
7.  Zawidzka E., Tauzowski P., Zawidzki M.^{♦}, Błachowski B., Jankowski Ł., Structural topology optimization of a modular snakelike manipulator, CMMSolMech 2022, 24th International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics; 42nd Solid Mechanics Conference, 20220905/0908, Świnoujście (PL), pp.11, 2022 Abstract: This contribution concerns a snakelike robotic manipulator arm proposed first in [1]. The manipulator is composed of linearly but nonaxially joined identical modules with a possibility of relative twist, which amounts to one degree of freedom per module. It is an example of an extremely modular system [2], and its advantages are: economization (due to modularity and possible mass production) and robustness (easy repair by replacement of a failed module). The hitherto research involved the possible geometric transformations of the manipulator arm [3], but not its structural optimization. However, structural design of the involved modules is a challenging task, as the process has to take into account the relative position of the module along the arm, as well as the variety of global configurations of the deployed manipulator. It leads to a multiload structural optimization problem with a significantly large number of loads. This contribution considers topology optimization of such a modular manipulator structure. Due to the large variety of possible load conditions, the initial analysis involves a 2D model of the structure with a discrete set of two possible relative arrangements of adjacent modules. Such a formulation allows the proposed approach to be preliminarily explored, tested and optimized in a numerically manageable simplified environment. The support of the National Science Centre, Poland, granted under the grant agreement 2019/33/B/ST8/02791 is gratefully acknowledged. Affiliations:
 
8.  Zawidzka E., Kiński W.^{♦}, Szklarski J., Zawidzki M., ArmZ: a hyperredundant modular inspection manipulator (for extreme environments), WEO 2021, 2nd Workshop on Engineering Optimization, 20211007/1008, Warszawa (PL), pp.13, 2021  
9.  Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., The Ideal House  multicriterial optimization of a Single Family House, The 10th International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology, 20180904/0906, Barcelona (ES), pp.12, 2018 Abstract: Architectural design is particularly difficult, because it must combine multicriterial engineering optimization with other types of challenges, such as aesthetic and psychological which are usually illdefined and arbitrary. Singlefamily house (SFH) is an archetypal architectural problem. Not only because it deals with creating of a habitat for the basic social cell, but also in a nutshell represents the entire spectrum of issues prevailing to architecture. That is environmental, both natural and artificial conditions. Since the scale of this classic problem is relatively small, it is usually manageable by a single architect. Nevertheless, the design conditions (natural and symbolical) are relatively diverse which inspire architects' imagination. This makes SFH probably the most favorable and pleasurable type of architectural design among the architects. In this multicriterial optimization certain aspects are to be minimized (e.g. noise exposition, glare, overheating, etc.) and others to be maximized (e.g. functionality, privacy, etc.). Moreover, some aspects of design have discrete nature (e.g. the functional relationships among rooms), while other are continuous (insolation, etc.). This paper presents preliminary results of the multicriterial architectural optimization of a SFH. A twostep algorithm has been applied: at first, a graphtheoretical combinatorial search produces a set of “good” architectural layouts, which are next evaluated against environmental conditions (noise, insolation and view exposition). Keywords:architectural optimization, bruteforce, GPU, multicriterial Affiliations:

Patents
Filing No./Date Filing Publication  Autor(s) Title Protection Area, Applicant Name  Patent Number Date of Grant  

442059 20220822    Zawidzki M. Moduł, modularny system do budowy struktur rurowych, struktura rurowa oraz sposób tworzenia struktur rurowych opartych na tym module PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN      
434024 20200521 BUP 34/2021 20211122  Zawidzki M., Wołejsza Z. Zasadniczo cylindryczna konstrukcja modułowa do zabezpieczania obiektu na dnie akwenu PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN      
428406 20181227 BUP 14/2020 20200629  Zawidzki M. Modularny system do tworzenia sztywnych struktur rurowych o dowolnym kształcie PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN      
426131 20180629 BUP 01/2020 20200102  Zawidzki M. Modularny system do tworzenia pochylni o dowolnym rzucie i o stałym stopniu nachylenia PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN  236119 WUP 20/2020 20201214 