Prof. Leszek Filipczyński, PhD, DSc |

##### Doctoral thesis

1955 | Przetwarzanie elektroakustyczne i promieniowanie jod akustycznych dla celów impulsowej defektoskopii ultradźwiękowej
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##### Professor

1962 | Title of professor |

##### Other

1969 | Corresponding Member of Polish Academy of Sciences |

1976 | Member of Polish Academy of Sciences |

##### Supervision of doctoral theses

1. | 1990 | Litniewski Jerzy | Sygnał z mikroskopu akustycznego przy pracy poza ogniskiem i jego zastosowanie do interpretacji obrazów biologicznych | ||

2. | 1984 | Piechocki Maciej | Ultradźwiękowe metody dopplerowskie pomiaru z zaburzonych przepływów krwi | ||

3. | 1980 | Maruk Tamara | Dynamiczne ogniskowanie wiązki ultradźwiękowej za pomocą przetworników pierścieniowych | ||

4. | 1978 | Markiewicz Anna | Analiza impulsowych nadawczo-odbiorczych układów ultradźwiękowych do celów diagnostyki medycznej | ||

5. | 1977 | Powałowski Tadeusz | Pomiar przepływu cieczy ultradźwiękową dooplerowską metodą fali ciągłej | ||

6. | 1977 | Etienne Jerzy | Wybrane zagadnienia z zastosowania ultradźwięków w położnictwie | ||

7. | 1976 | Nowicki Andrzej | Ultradźwiękowa dopplerowska impulsowa metoda i aparatura do pomiarów przepływu krwi w układzie krążenia | ||

8. | 1972 | Peńsko Bogumił | Teoria i badania eksperymentalne ultradźwiękowych układów drgań giętnych z punktu widzenia ich zastosowań do badań zmęczeniowych lin | ||

9. | 1970 | Łypacewicz Grażyna | Problemy elektroakustyczne ultradźwiękowych głowic stosowanych w diagnostyce medycznej |

##### Recent publications

1. | Wójcik J., Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Foundation of the new method of numerical calculations of the nonlinear acoustics fields, HYDROACOUSTICS, ISSN: 1642-1817, Vol.16, pp.253-262, 2013Abstract:We explain, motivation behind this work and briefly describe foundation of new method which we have developed for efficient solution in PC environment of the nonlinear propagation equation with the boundary conditions applied for both circular and not circular transducers (like array). Comparison between new and old method will be presented for strongly nonlinear disturbance. At the end we will demonstrate the results of the numerical calculations of the nonlinear field propagating from the array. Keywords:Nonliear propagation, Envelope waves, Fast calculations Affiliations:
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2. | Wójcik J., Nowicki A., Lewin P.A.^{♦}, Bloomfield P.E.^{♦}, Kujawska T., Filipczyński L., Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2006.04.001, Vol.44, pp.310-339, 2006Abstract:A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wojcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximateratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to (1/N)**2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach (based on a Fourier series representation of the propagating wave) are given for circular source geometry, which represents the most challenging case from the computational time point of view. For two cases, short (2 cycle) and long (8 cycle) 2 MHz bursts, the computational times were 10 min and 15 min versus 2 h and 8 h for the TAWE method versus the conventional method, respectively. Keywords:Nonliear propagation, Envelope waves, Fast calculations Affiliations:
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3. | Kujawska T., Wójcik J., Filipczyński L., Possible Temperature Effects Computed for Acoustic Microscopy Used For Living Cells, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2003.08.018, Vol.30, No.1, pp.93-101, 2004Abstract:Imaging of living cells or tissues at a microscopic resolution, where GHz frequencies are used, provides a foundation for many new biological applications. The possible temperature increase causing a destructive influence on the living cells should be then avoided. However, there is no information on possible local temperature increases at these very high frequencies where, due to strongly focused ultrasonic beams, nonlinear propagation effects occur. Acoustic parameters of living cells were assumed to be close to those of water; therefore, the power density of heat sources in a water medium was determined as a basic quantity. Hence, the numerical solution of temperature distributions at the frequency of 1 GHz was computed for high and low powers generated by the transducer equal to 0.32 W and 0.002 W. In the first case, typical nonlinear propagation effects were demonstrated and, in the second one, propagation was almost linear. The focal temperature increase obtained in water equaled 14°C for the highest possible theoretical repetition frequency of fr = 10 MHz and for the thermal insulation at the sapphire lens-water boundary. Simultaneously, the scanning velocity of the tested object was assumed to be incomparably low in respect to the acoustic beam velocity. The maximum temperature increase in water occurred exactly at this boundary, being equal there to 20°C. It was shown that, first of all, the very high absorption of water was significant for the temperature distribution in the investigated region, suppressing the focal temperature peaks. Because the temperature increases are proportional to the repetition frequency, so for example, at its practical value of fr = 0.1 MHz, all temperature increases will be 100 times lower than listed above. For the low transducer power of 0.002 W, the corresponding temperature increases were about 140 times lower than those for the high power of 0.32 W. The presented solutions are devoted mainly to the reflection pulse mode; however, they can be also applied for the transmitting (continuous-wave) mode, as shown in an example. Pressure distributions were computed for the acoustic field of the microscope for the first and higher harmonics. Hence, at the frequency of 1 GHz, the effective focal radius in water measured as the −6-dB amplitude pressure drop was found to be 1,1 μm, and 0.7 μm for the second harmonic, independently of the assumed transducer power. So the width of the beam, scanning the living cells in the focal region, was equal to 2.2 μm at the fundamental frequency of 1 GHz. Keywords:Temperature, Acoustic microscopy, Living cells, Temperature increase, Pressure Affiliations:
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4. | Filipczyński L., Estimation of heat distribution in the acoustic lens of an ultrasonic microscope with the carrier frequency of 1 GHz, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.29, No.3, pp.427-433, 2004Abstract:The propagation of heat was analyzed in the lens of an acoustic microscope used for testing of living cells at the frequency of 1~GHz. Information concerning the propagation of heat is necessary for determination of thermal boundary conditions which influence the temperature increase in the tested samples representing acoustical properties of water. The time of temperature propagation from water, heated due to high absorption, to the sapphire body of the lens was estimated to be 0.77 ms. To carry out these calculations the derivations of Carslow and Jaeger [2] and of Tautz [6] were adjusted. On the other hand the propagation time of the acoustic wave in the sapphire body equalled 0.0093 [ampersand]mu;s only. The time of image formation in the microscope is rather long being equal from one to several seconds due to mechanical inertia of the support vibrating together with the tested sample. The heat capacities of the water volume and the sapphire body were found to be comparable. However, if the heat capacity of the water volume would be many time smaller then the time of the finally attained temperature would be elongated. This effect can be neglected since the time of image formation is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the time of penetration of the sapphire body by the heat supplied by water. As the result a temperature equilibrium will be obtained with the average boundary temperature of water. In such a case no heat flux will penetrate the boundary water - sapphire and the condition of the thermal insulation at the boundary will be fulfilled. This thermal boundary condition makes it possible to determine the real temperature increase in biological specimens. Affiliations:
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5. | Filipczyński L., Wójcik J., Kujawska T., Łypacewicz G., Tymkiewicz R., Zienkiewicz B., Nonlinear Native Propagation Effect of Diagnostic Ultrasound Computed and Measured in Blood, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/S0301-5629(00)00329-X, Vol.27, No.2, pp.251-257, 2001Abstract:Nonlinear propagation effects produced by focused pulses in blood were measured over a 20-cm range, being inspired by diagnostic applications in cardiology. The initial and maximum pressures applied during measurements in blood were equal to 0.40 MPapp and 0.76 MPapp, while the pressure estimated at the patient body surface equalled 0.70 MPapp. Measurements of the frequency characteristic and the linearity of the ultrasonic probe used in experiments were performed in water. A numerical procedure developed previously was applied in blood to calculate the pressure distribution of its first and second harmonics along the beam axis. The comparison of numerical and measured distributions in blood at a temperature of 37°C showed rather good agreement. Using numerical methods, a proportional growth of the second harmonic with the increased applied initial pressure was first observed, and finally the maximum limiting effect was found. In this way, much higher level of harmonics could be obtained. However, there arise the questions of the transmitting system construction and of the nonuniform resolution in the case of harmonic imaging when increasing the applied initial pressure. Keywords:Ultrasound, Pulses, Nonlinear propagation, Blood, Cardiology Affiliations:
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6. | Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Wójcik J., Tymkiewicz R., Numerical and experimental pressure determination in the very near field of a piezoelectric transducer, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.26, No.3, pp.223-233, 2001Abstract:Measurements in the very near field of piezoelectric transducers are fundamental for many ultrasonic problems. In such cases also the transducer vibrations should be known to perform mathematical models of radiated beams. Acoustic pressure measurements near to the transducer surface can give the necessary information. The pressure of the radiated wave at the transducer surface corresponds to its normal vibration velocity multiplied by the [ampersand]rho;c value of the medium. However, this is valid only for the central wave, when the edge wave of the transducer can be ignored. On the other hand, pressure measurements on and very near to the transducer surface are not possible because of the voltage leakage between the electronic transmitter and the PVDF hydrophone used in such measurements. By means of a numerical model, central and edge waves were found for a plane PZT transducer 7.5mm in radius, with the applied 2.7MHz voltage pulse composed of 3 cycles. Two types of boundary conditions of Dirichlet and Neumann were considered showing a negligible difference in the case of short pulses. Basing on numerical and experimental results, practical conditions were determined which make it possible to carry out pressure measurements in the very near field of the transducer, and hence to determine the transducer vibrations which are important for modeling ultrasonic pulse beams. Affiliations:
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7. | Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Tymkiewicz R., Wójcik J., Nonlinear and linear propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00174-4, Vol.25, No.2, pp.285-299, 1999Abstract:The effect of nonlinear propagation in fluid followed by soft tissue was studied both theoretically and experimentally for a most crucial case in obstetrical ultrasonography. For this purpose, short pressure pulses, with the duration time of 1.3 μs and a carrier frequency of 3 MHz, radiated by a concave transducer into water, with maximum intensities up to the value of 18 W/cm2, were computed and measured. The ultrasonic beam had the physical focus at the distance of 6.5 cm, where the highest focal intensity of ISPPA= 242 W/cm2 was obtained. In front of the transducer, at a distance of 7 cm, artificial tissue samples prepared on the basis of ground porcine kidney, with a thickness of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 cm, were placed in water. Pressure pulses and their spectral components were produced numerically and measured by means of a PVDF hydrophone in water before and after penetrating the tissue samples. The theoretical analysis and measurements were carried out, in every case, for two signal levels: for a high level assuring nonlinear propagation and for a low one where conditions of linear propagation were fulfilled. In this way, it was possible to compare directly the effects of nonlinear and linear propagation, in every case showing a good conformity of theoretical values with measured ones. A method of determination of the effective frequency response of the hydrophone was elaborated to enable quantitative comparisons of numerical and experimental results. The theoretical part of our study was based on a paper of Wójcik (1998), enabling us to compute the characteristic function of nonlinear increase of absorption. An agreement of up to 10% was obtained when comparing theoretical and measured values of these functions in the investigated beam in water and behind tissue samples. The results obtained showed that the recently given theory of nonlinear absorption, based on the spectral analysis and the elaborated numerical procedures, may be useful in various practical ultrasonic medical problems and also in technological applications. Keywords:Ultrasound, Pulses, Nonlinear propagation, Diagnostics Affiliations:
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8. | Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Tymkiewicz R., Wójcik J., Amplitude, isobar and gray -scale imaging of ultrasonic shadows behind rigid, elastic and gaseous spheres, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(95)02031-4, Vol.22, No.2, pp.261-270, 1996Abstract:The theory of wave reflection from spherical obstacles was applied for determination of the cause of the shadow created by plane wave pulses incident on rigid, steel, gaseous spheres and on spheres made of kidney stones. The spheres were immersed in water which was assumed to be a tissuelike medium. Acoustic pressure distributions behind the spheres with the radii of 1 mm, 2.5 mm and 3.5 mm were determined at the frequency of 5 MHz. The use of the exact wave theory enabled us to take into account the diffraction effects. The computed pressure distributions were verified experimentally at the frequency of 5 MHz for a steel sphere with a 2.5-mm radius. The experimental and theoretical pulses were composed of about three ultrasonic frequency periods. Acoustic pressure distributions in the shadow zone of all spheres were shown in the amplitude axonometric projection, in the grey scale and also as acoustic isobar patterns. Our analysis confirmed existing simpler descriptions of the shadow from the point of view of reflection and refraction effects; however, our approach is more general, also including diffraction effects and assuming the pulse mode. The analysis has shown that gaseous spherical inclusions caused shadows with very high dynamics of acoustic pressures that were about 15 dB higher in relation to all the other spheres. The shadow length, determined as the length at which one observes a 6-dB drop of the acoustic pressure, followed the relation r−6dB = 3.7a2λ with the accuracy of about 20% independent of the sphere type. λ denotes the wavelength and a the sphere radius. Thus, a theoretical possibility of differentiating between gaseous and other inclusions and of estimation of the inclusion size in the millimeter range from the shadow was shown. The influence of the frequency-dependent attenuation on the shadow will be considered in the next study. Keywords:Shadow, Pulses, Spheres, Ultrasonography Affiliations:
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9. | Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Wójcik J., Temperature elevation in focused Gaussian ultrasonic beams at various insonation times, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(93)90073-W, Vol.19, No.8, pp.667-679, 1993Abstract:Transient solution of the thermal conductivity equation for the three-dimensional case of the Gaussian ultrasonic focused beam was derived and applied for cases relevant to medical ultrasonography. Quantitative results for the case of a homogeneous medium with constant values of thermal coefficients and constant absorption as well as for the two-layer tissue model used in obstetrics were presented for various diagnostic probes used in ultrasonography. The possible effects of perfusion and nonlinear propagation were neglected. The results obtained are in agreement with results of other authors when considering the steady-state and the infinitely short insonation time. The computations show the influence of the insonation time on the temperature elevation, thus making it possible to introduce its value as a factor in limiting the possible harmful effects in ultrasonography. This has been shown in diagrams presenting the temperature distribution along the beam axis of 6 different diagnostic probes for various insonation times and demonstrating the corresponding temperature decrease when limiting the insonation time to 5 and 1 min. For instance, the highest temperature elevation (for probe number 1, see Table 1) decreases 2.6 and 5 times with respect to the steady-state temperature when the insonation time equals 5 and 1 min, respectively. Keywords:Temperature, Ultrasonography, Time, Hazard Affiliations:
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10. | Filipczyński L., Wójcik J., Estimation of transient temperature elevation in lithotripsy and in ultrasonography, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(91)90104-5, Vol.17, No.7, pp.715-721, 1991Abstract:Transient solutions of the thermal conductivity equation for the two-dimensional case of an elongated cylíndrical focus in the ultrasonic beam were derived and applied for lithotripsy and obstetrical ultrasonography. Assuming uniform and Gaussian distributions in the focus of the beam cross section, it was possible to estimate the temperature elevation arising in lithotripsy for various repetition frequencies of shock-wave pulses and for various radii of the beam. In obstetrical ultrasonography where the blood perfusion is difficult to determine, the authors suggested that the insonation time be used as the decisive factor for the temperature determination. Values of focal intensities were found necessary to increase the tissue temperature by 1°C as a function of the insonation time and the beam radius which exclude the possibility of any hazardous effect caused by temperature elevation. Keywords:Lithotripsy, Obstetrics, Ultrasonography, Temperature, Hazard Affiliations:
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11. | Powałowski T., Etienne J., Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Piechocki M., Secomski W., Wleciał A.^{♦}, Barańska M.^{♦}, Ultrasonic gray scale doppler imaging angiography, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.9, No.1-2, pp.131-136, 1984Abstract:Examination of the carotid artery stenosis is very important in the diag-nosis of cerebrovascular diseases. New possibilities in the diagnosis of stenotic lesions are provided by ultrasonic Doppler angiography. The aim of this paper is to present a Doppler imaging system developed by the authors for the exami¬nation of blood flowing in carotid arteries. The system is based upon a 5 MHz bi-directional c.tv. Doppler flowmeter with a separate output for anterograde and retrograde flows. A special bank of filters converts signals into various levels of the gray-scale display which correspond to the value of the blood flow velocity. The ultrasonic probe is held by the scanning arm. The position of the probe on the skin of the patient is electronically sensed by the position-sensing circuity which causes the bright spot on the image display to move according to the position of the probe. The Doppler image from the artery is stored in a digital memory system. The clinical results obtained by means of this system showed good agreement with X-ray arteriography for obstructions occluding more than 50 per cent of the arterial diameter. Affiliations:
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12. | Wesołowski J.^{♦}, Nowicki A., Topolska B.^{♦}, Pawlicki G., Filipczyński L., Pałko T.^{♦}, Rykowski H.^{♦}, Estimation of the collateral circulation index (CCI) in the lower extremities using the impedance rheography and ultrasonic methods, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.9, No.1-2, pp.191-198, 1984 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

13. | Filipczyński L., Detectability of gas bubbles in blood by the ultrasonic method, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.8, No.1, pp.11-30, 1983Abstract:The reflection of a plane ultrasonic wave from a gas bubble in the blood was considered quantitatively in the range ka < 1 (a is the radius of the bubble, k = 27s/A and is the wavelength). Taking as an example the elbow vein (vena basilica), the losses in a signal caused by electroacoustical transducing, attenua¬tion of the wave in tissues, reflection of the wave from the bubble and diver¬gence of the reflected wave were evaluated using a typical ultrasonic Doppler device with a frequency of 8 MHz. Affiliations:
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14. | Filipczyński L., Ultrasonic characterization of tissues in cardiology, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.8, No.1, pp.83-94, 1983Abstract:In order to analyse the possibility of the determination of the properties of soft tissues using ultrasonic (noninvasive) methods, a review was made of the basic physical properties characterizing acoustic wave propagation in these tissues (propagation velocity, attenuation, scattering). In a discussion of the results of "in vitro" investigations, it was shown that investigations of backscattering can be very significant for cardiological applications; the heart muscle with scars caused by an infarct is characterized by an increased pro-portion of collagen-rich connective tissue which has the value of the back-scattering coefficient greater by a factor of some dozens than that of normal muscle. This is related to the higher echographic visualizability of collagen than other soft tissues and suggests the practical possibility of noninvasive distinguishing of the regions of the muscle with scars caused by the infarct from normal muscle. This possibility was confirmed by "in vivo" investiga-tions performed on dogs by the method of grey level histograms obtained from ultrasonograms of dog's hearts. Affiliations:
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15. | Filipczyński L., Detectability of blood vessels by means of the ultrasonic echo method using a focused ultrasonic beam, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.7, No.3-4, pp.253-270, 1982Abstract:The detectability of a small, hypothetical cylinder-shaped blood vessel with a diameter of 0.1 mm has been considered analytically using the ultrasonic echo method. Soft tissues surrounding the vessel have been taken as homoge¬neous and not causing reflections of ultrasonic waves. They have been ascribed both with bulk and shear elasticity. A beam of longitudinal ultrasonic waves incident on the vessel has been taken in the form of a focused beam at the focus of which the blood vessel has been placed. It has been assumed that the reflection of ultrasonic waves from the blood vessel is caused by the difference between the velocity of waves in the tissue surrounding the vessel and that in blood. Affiliations:
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16. | Filipczyński L., Detectability of small blood vessels and flat boundaries of soft tissues in the ultrasonic pulse echo method, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.6, No.1, pp.46-56, 1981Abstract:The detectability of a small blood vessel of a radius 0.1 mm by the pulse echo ultrasonic method using a frequency of 2.5 MHz was estimated. It was assu¬med that the vessel was surrounded by a homogeneous soft tissue (i.e. causing no reflection) and was in the near region of the far field radiated in a continuous manner by a plane transducer of a diameter of 2 cm. The soft tissue and the walls of the vessel were assumed to have the same elastic properties as those of a li¬quid. Affiliations:
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17. | Filipczyński L., Ultrasonic wave propagation along the surface of a rod immersed In a liquid, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.4, No.3, pp.271-286, 1979Abstract:This paper describes the wave phenomena occurring in a needle used for puncture of body organs, under the simplifying assumption that this needle is an ideal elastic cylinder immersed in an ideal liquid. Affiliations:
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18. | Filipczyński L., Measurement of the temperature increases generated in soft tissue by ultrasonic diagnostic Doppler equipment, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(78)90042-X, Vol.4, No.2, pp.151-153, 155, 1978Abstract:Temperature increases on the body surface from the use of two different ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meters were determined experimentally. Using a thermographic method it was shown that the temperature increase can be significant. Two continuous wave ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meters induced temperature increases on the body surface of 12.5°C and 2.3°C respectively, after an insonation time of 100 sec. Theoretical estimates and experimental results have shown an approximate agreement in the values of the temperature increase. Affiliations:
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19. | Filipczyński L., Thermal effects in soft tissues developed under the action of ultra¬sonic fields of long duration, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.2, No.4, pp.297-303, 1977Abstract:The thermal effect arising from the sonification of soft tissues by an ultrasonic beam, cylindrical in shape, with the assumption of an even distri¬bution of heat sources in the beam, has been considered. Affiliations:
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20. | Etienne J., Filipczyński L., Firek A.^{♦}, Groniowski J.^{♦}, Kretowicz J.^{♦}, Łypacewicz G., Sałkowski J.^{♦}, Intensity determination of ultrasonic focused beams used in ultrasonography in the case of gravid uterus, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(76)90020-X, Vol.2, No.2, pp.119-122, 1976Abstract:The authors applied two absolute methods for the determination of the intensity of ultrasonic focused beams of 2·5 MHz frequency used in ultrasonograph UG-4 for abdominal visualization: the electrodynamic and the capacitance methods. For the first method a special electrodynamic transducer was constructed which made it possible to measure the acoustic (particle) velocity in the focal point of the ultrasonic beam radiating into water. Hence the focal intensity could be determined. Affiliations:
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21. | Borodziński K.^{♦}, Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Powałowski T., Quantitative transcutaneous measurements of blood flow in carotid artery by means of pulse and continuous wave Doppler methods, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(76)90036-3, Vol.2, No.3, pp.189-193, 1976Abstract:The authors present results of quantitative measurements of blood in vivo in the carotid artery of man. The Doppler pulse technique was used after being previously verified for steady state flows in tubes and for pulsating flows in a canine aorta where the electromagnetic method was also used for comparison. Affiliations:
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22. | Filipczyński L., Efekt termiczny w tkankach miękkich powstający pod wpływem zogniskowanych pól ultradźwiękowych o krótkich czasach trwania, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.72, pp.1-19, 1975 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

23. | Filipczyński L., Stany nieustalone, układ zastępczy i ujemna pojemność piezoelektrycznego przetwornika o drganiach grubościowych, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.68, pp.1-28, 1974 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

24. | Filipczyński L., Toczyski Z.^{♦}, Bezkontaktowa metoda pomiaru mocy w falowodzie ultradźwiękowym w czasie rzeczywistym, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.70, pp.1-30, 1974 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

25. | Borodziński K.^{♦}, Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Powałowski T., Badania prędkości przepływu ultradźwiękową metodą wykorzystującą zjawisko Dopplera, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.40, pp.1-16, 1972 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

26. | Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Powałowski T., Kretowicz J.^{♦}, Starzyńska J.^{♦}, Badanie wpływu ultradźwięków promieniowanych przez detektor tętna na chromosomy człowieka w hodowli limfocytów, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.46, pp.1-24, 1972 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

27. | Filipczyński L., Dosage Problem, Acoustic Output and Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.17, pp.1-10, 1971 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

28. | Filipczyński L., Etienne J., Sferyczne przetworniki ogniskujące o gaussowskim powierzchniowym rozkładzie prędkości, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.50, pp.1-34, 1971 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

29. | Etienne J., Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Powałowski T., Ultradźwiękowa metoda badania tętna na zasadzie zjawiska Dopplera, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.51, pp.1-17, 1970 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

30. | Etienne J., Filipczyński L., Ilmurzyńska K.^{♦}, Sałkowski J.^{♦}, Ultradźwiękowe metody badania czynności serca, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.5, pp.1-19, 1969 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

31. | Filipczyński L., The Near Field Distribution on the Axis of a Vibrating Piston, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.11, pp.1-6, 1968 | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

32. | Malecki I., Filipczyński L., Measuremnats of attenuation coefficients using the acoustical long line, Przegląd Telekomunikacyjny, Vol.4, pp.11-116, 1951 |

##### Patents

Filing No./Date Filing Publication | Autor(s) Title Protection Area, Applicant Name | Patent Number Date of Grant | |
---|---|---|---|

266235 1987-06-12 - 1989-01-05 | Filipczyński L., Etienne J., Kowalski H.^{♦}, Szkóp H.^{♦}Urządzenie do nieinwazyjnego kruszenia kamieni nerkowychPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 149842 - 1990-04-30 | |

266056 1987-06-03 - 1988-12-08 | Filipczyński L., Etienne J.^{♦}^{♦}, Szkóp H.^{♦}Urządzenie do nieinwazyjnego kruszenia kamieni w ciele pacjenta za pomocą fal uderzeniowychPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 151203 - 1991-01-31 | |

249058 1984-08-03 - 1986-02-25 | Filipczyński L., Szkóp H.^{♦}Urządzenie przenoszące ruchy wiązki ultradźwiękowej na ekran lampy obrazowejPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 141295 - 1988-06-30 | |

240247 1983-01-21 - 1984-07-30 | Buczyński J.^{♦}, Filipczyński L., Izydorczak Z.^{♦}Urządzenie do wizualizacji sercaPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 139564 - 1988-06-30 | |

239097 1982-11-18 - 1986-11-15 | Filipczyński L., Karłowicz P.^{♦}, Nowicki A.Sposób i urządzenie do rozpoznania zaburzenia przepływu cieczy, zwłaszcza krwiPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 136932 - 1984-12-03 | |

249124 1982-11-18 - 1985-03-12 | Filipczyński L., Karłowicz P.^{♦}, Nowicki A.Sposób i urządzenie do rozpoznania zaburzenia przepływu cieczy, zwłaszcza krwiPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 142585 - 1989-08-31 | |

213954 1979-03-07 - 1980-10-06 | Filipczyński L., Krawczykowa Z.^{♦}, Czajkowski J.^{♦}, Etienne J.Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie do pomiaru przepływu i ciśnienia krwi zwłaszcza w naczyniach krwionośnych gałki ocznejPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 118899 - 1983-04-15 | |

209742 1978-09-21 - 1980-05-05 | Filipczyński L.UltrasonografPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 117337 - 1983-03-24 | |

209744 1978-09-21 - 1980-04-21 | Filipczyński L., Etienne J.Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie do badania wewnętrznych struktur anatomicznychPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 117441 - 1984-03-30 | |

206955 1978-05-20 - 1983-03-15 | Etienne J., Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Powałowski T.Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie dopplerowskie zwłaszcza do pomiaru przepływu krwiPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 117416 - 1980-01-28 | |

200708 1977-09-07 - 1978-07-17 | Filipczyński L., Sałkowski J.^{♦}^{♦}Urządzenie do rejestracji obrazów z ekranu oscyloskopowego lub kineskopowego ultradźwiękowego urządzenia do wizualizacji ciała ludzkiego, zwłaszcza ruchomych struktur sercaPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 105204 - 1981-12-30 | |

196471 1977-03-07 - 1979-08-30 | Filipczyński L., Nowicki A.Sposób oraz urządzenie do wizualizacji naczynia krwionośnego i wyznaczania kąta nachylenia wiązki ultradźwiękowej względem naczynia krwionośnegoPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 103608 - 1978-01-16 | |

190082 1976-06-03 - 1977-04-25 | Filipczyński L., Sałkowski J.^{♦}^{♦}, Szkóp H.^{♦}, Soroka S.^{♦}Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie do wizualizacji narządów ciała ludzkiego, zwłaszcza sercaPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 98364 - 1980-11-29 | |

179156 1975-03-28 - 1976-10-23 | Filipczyński L., Nowicki A., Borodziński K.^{♦}Impulsowy ultradźwiękowy miernik przepływu i profilu prędkości cieczy zwłaszcza krwi płynącej w naczyniach krwionośnychPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 99449 - 1978-11-15 | |

178844 1975-03-17 - 1976-03-27 | Filipczyński L., Beredziński K.^{♦}^{♦}, Sałkowski J.^{♦}Urządzenie do rejestracji maksymalnej prędkości przepływu cieczy, zwłaszcza krwiPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 95112 - 1978-04-29 | |

178613 1975-03-07 - 1976-02-28 | Filipczyński L., Sałkowski J.^{♦}^{♦}, Szkóp H.^{♦}Ultradźwiękowy sposób wizualizacji struktur oka i oczodołu oraz ultrasonograf do stosowania tego sposobuPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 96740 - 1978-06-30 | |

175318 1974-11-04 - 1976-12-04 | Filipczyński L., Etienne J.^{♦}^{♦}, Borodziński K.^{♦}Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie do badań położniczych wykorzystujące zjawisko DoppleraPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 97328 - 1979-07-30 | |

170123 1974-04-05 - 1975-11-03 | Filipczyński L., Etienne J.^{♦}^{♦}Ultradźwiękowe urządzenie do badań położniczych wykorzystujące zjawisko DoppleraPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 93554 - 1997-12-15 | |

162940 1973-05-30 - 1975-03-01 | Filipczyński L., Waszczuk T.^{♦}^{♦}, Sałkowski J.^{♦}, Szkóp H.^{♦}Ultrasonograf do uwidaczniania wewnętrznych struktur ciałaPL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 91039 - 1977-07-30 | |

162047 1973-04-20 - 1975-04-01 | Filipczyński L.^{♦}Sposób i aparat do bezstykowego pomiaru mocy podłużnej fali ultradźwiękowej w falowodziePL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 89150 - 1977-06-30 | |

162046 1973-04-20 - 1975-03-01 | Filipczyński L.^{♦}Sposób i aparat do bezstykowego pomiaru mocy podłużnej fali ultradźwiękowej w falowodziePL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN | 89155 - 1977-07-30 |